2,000-Year-Old Horse Head Is Much Cooler Than It Sounds

An early first-century CE horse head, once part of a Roman statue of Emperor Augustus, was discovered near Frankfurt, Germany in 2009. The 28-pound gilded bronze horse head, plus artifacts found near it, provide more information about the relationship between the Roman Empire and its northern "barbarian" Germanic neighbors.

They indicate there was a Roman civilian village or town nearby. Before the finds, historians thought Rome intended to subdue the area with military force. The horsehead and related finds suggest, instead, that the Romans set up non-military settlements nearby, and were actively trading with the Germanic tribes for a number of years.

New Evidence That Humans Have Loved Dogs Since Paleolithic Times

The remains of a woman, a man, and two dogs have been found in Bonn-Oberkassel, Germany, dating to some 14,000 years ago. The burial is the oldest known example of dogs being buried alongside humans. It gives early evidence about dog domestication, and demonstrates that the dogs were very well taken care of.

A study of the younger dog's teeth show it died at 27 or 28 weeks old, after contracting canine distemper as a 19-week-old puppy. Distemper kills almost all puppies within weeks, even with proper veterinary care, so it seems this puppy was well looked after. To have kept it alive for so long would mean having kept the puppy warm, clean, well-fed, and well-watered, all while there was no hope of the dog ever becoming a working animal, and repaying its care.

The teeth study, and the placement of the dogs with their owners, suggests humans and dogs shared a unique and close relationship as early as 14,000 years ago.

This type of hilt is called a "basket" style. Because it is like a basket weave? Venetian two-handed broadsword, circa 1775 - 1800.

Humanity Has Influenced The Evolution Of Bears?

Over twenty years ago, Sweden banned hunting female brown bears when they were still with their cubs. Reasonable right? Well, a recent study found that brown bears have evolved to care for their cubs an extra year! The increased time with the cubs decreases the mother's overall number of offspring, but it increases both the mother's and the cub's liklihood of survival.

Preserved Heads Found At A Prehistoric Celtic Site in France

Scientists examined thousands of Iron Age skull fragments recovered from the fortified Celtic site of Le Cailar, which is located on a lagoon of the Rhône River, in France. The researchers estimate the fragments, which date to the 200s BCE, represented about 50 broken-up skulls. Weapons were found alongside the bones. Chemical analysis of 11 of the skulls detected conifer resin in six of them, suggesting the heads had been embalmed.

Why preserve just heads? Well, the researchers think the weapons and embalmed heads may have been put on display in a large, open space near the settlement gate, where they would have been seen by visiting Mediterranean traders. Ancient Greek and Roman sources claimed that Celts who lived in Gaul decapitated their enemies after battle, and hung the heads around their horses’ necks as trophies. Iron Age sculptures depicting the practice have been found in southern France.

“Homosexuality Is ... Nothing To Be Ashamed Of” Said Freud

Freud was wrong about almost everything. But he had a couple redeeming qualities, among them that he did not consider homosexuality an illness or something to be eradicated. Which was extremely ahead of his time. In 1935, psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud was contacted by a worried mother. She was seeking treatment for her son, who was apparently gay. Freud believed that all humans are attracted to both sexes in some capacity. So he responded with the following letter of advice:

Dear Mrs [Erased], I gather from your letter that your son is a homosexual. I am most impressed by the fact that you do not mention this term yourself in your information about him. May I question you why you avoid it? Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation; it cannot be classified as an illness; we consider it to be a variation of the sexual function, produced by a certain arrest of sexual development. Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them. (Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc). It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime – and a cruelty, too. If you do not believe me, read the books of Havelock Ellis.

By asking me if I can help, you mean, I suppose, if I can abolish homosexuality and make normal heterosexuality take its place. The answer is, in a general way we cannot promise to achieve it. In a certain number of cases we succeed in developing the blighted germs of heterosexual tendencies, which are present in every homosexual in the majority of cases it is no more possible. It is a question of the quality and the age of the individual. The result of treatment cannot be predicted.

What analysis can do for your son runs on a different line. If he is unhappy, neurotic, torn by conflicts, inhibited in his social life, analysis may bring him harmony, peace of mind, full efficiency, whether he remains a homosexual or gets changed. If you make up your mind he should have analysis with me — I don't expect you will — he has to come over to Vienna. I have no intention of leaving here. However, don't neglect to give me your answer.

Sincerely yours with best wishes,

Freud

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    HISTORICAL NON-FICTION

    By Lillian Audette

    This blog is a collection of the interesting, the weird, and sometimes the need-to-know about history, culled from around the internet. It has pictures, it has quotes, it occasionally has my own opinions on things. If you want to know more about anything posted, follow the link at the "source" on the bottom of each post. And if you really like my work, buy me a coffee or become a patron!

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