Often called "Peter the Great of Turkey," Mahmud II was the 30th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He reigned from 1808 until his death in 1839. Mahmud II oversaw extensive military, administrative, and monetary reforms which were capped by the Decree of Tanzimat in 1839.
Tanzimat was an overarching modernizing effort which, among other things, ended tax farming, created military conscription from districts based on size (instead of the hereditary Janissaries), and created legal and social equality before the law for all citizen (instead of different religious systems operating autonomously, often with special privileges for favored sects). One aspect of Tanzimat greatly limited the sultan's power: it guaranteed citizens the rights of life and property. This meant sultans could no longer execute or confiscate the property of anyone at whim.
Unfortunately, Mahmud II died in 1839, so Tanzimat had to be implemented by his sons and successors.
Women in ancient Japan blackened their teeth with dye. White teeth were considered ugly. Evidence for this practice, called ohaguro, exists from as far back as the Kofun Period and (250 to 538 CE) in bone remains and on clay human figurines.
Ohaguro continued until the late 1800s and the Meiji Restoration.
Did you know that the word "sniper" comes from World War I? Before then, specialist marksmen were called "sharpshooters." But during World War I, British officers began referring to sharpshooters as ‘snipers’, recalling in late 1700s and 1800s when officers stationed in India would go bird hunting in the hills. The tiny snipe bird being one of the hardest of targets to hit. The slang implied that with their newfangled telescopic-sighted rifles, the specialist marksmen could likely hit snipes with ease.
From 1914 the word was widely adopted by the British press, and it spread from there.
Enjoy this posts and want to show support? Buy me a coffee or two :P
By Lillian Audette
This blog is a collection of the interesting, the weird, and sometimes the need-to-know about history, culled from around the internet. It has pictures, it has quotes, it occasionally has my own opinions on things. If you want to know more about anything posted, follow the link at the "source" on the bottom of each post. And if you really like my work, buy me a coffee or become a patron!