From Arabic to Iranian: How A Medieval Physician Changed How Medicine Was Taught

Ismā‘īl ibn Ḥasan Jurjānī (1042–1136 CE), known popularly as Hakim Jurjānī, was one of the most famous Iranian physicians in the 1100s. Since the time of the Arabic conquests, Iranians wrote scientific books in Arabic. It was the lingua franca of the educated and the elite. Jurjānī's medical encyclopedia, Zakhīrah-i Khvārazm’Shāhī ("The Treasure of Khvarazm’Shah") was the first major medical book in post-Islamic Iran written in Persian. Although the alphabet was Arabic.

Jurjānī's textbook soon became a primary resource for Iranian physicians, used for many centuries. It had ten parts, similar to Ibn Sina's earlier "The Canon of Medicine," and was often written with illustrations. The above illustration shows a skeleton as a medieval Iranian physician would have learned it.

The chrysanthemum was brought to Japan around the beginning of the Heian period (794−1185). By the Edo period (1600 - 1868) hundreds of types of chrysanthemums were being cultivated. These pages come from Gakiku, the first picture book of chrysanthemums published in Japan, in 1691. Its beautiful illustrations and Chinese-style poems introduced readers to 100 different varieties of the flower.

This Warrior Had Magnificent Eyebrows!

Fragment of a bowl depicting a mounted warrior. Fatimid dynasty, dating to the 1000s. Found in Fustat, Egypt

Have you heard of the “Blythe Intaglios”?

In 1932, pilot George Palmer was flying from Las Vegas to Blythe, Calif., when he saw drawings sketched on the desert. Someone had scraped away the dark surface soil to draw three human figures, two four-legged animals, and a spiral.

Like the more famous Nazca Lines in Peru, the Blythe Intaglios had gone unnoticed for so long because they were too big! The largest is over 170 feet long. Much too big to be seen from the ground. No local Native American group claims to have made them; radiocarbon dating places their creation between 900 BCE and 1200 CE.

This Remote Part of England Was Uniquely Terrified of Zombies

Residents of North Yorkshire, from the 1000s to the 1300s, were extremely afraid of the dead rising again to attack the living. So afraid, in fact, that villagers would dismember, decapitate, burn, and otherwise mutilate the corpses of their friends and neighbors before burying them. They generally mutilated the bodies shortly after they died, when the bones were still soft. Imagine doing that to your grandma!

The First Russian State Was...Ukrainian?

Ukraine's history is intertwined with Russia's history. The first Russian state, the Kievan Rus (800s to 1200s CE), headed by the Rurik dynasty, was centered in Kiev, the capital of modern Ukraine. Through the Russian Revolution in 1917, the tsars of Russia claimed to be descended from Rurik.

“Made In China” Label Helps Date An Indonesian Shipwreck

  A "Made in China" label stamped onto two ceramic boxes hauled up from a shipwreck at the bottom of the Java Sea is proof the ship went down a century earlier than previously believed. Yeah, I was confused too. The shipwreck was previously thought to have happened in the mid- to late-1200s. Now, new radiocarbon dating combined with the exact wording of the bureaucratic jargon on the "Made in China" label puts the real timing of the wreck during the second half of the 1100s.     Here's the evidence: The inscription, in Chinese characters, read, "Jianning Fu Datongfeng Wang Chengwu zhai yin." That describes where the ceramic boxes were made, the prefecture of Jianning Fu in Fujian Province.     "Fu" was an administrative word indicating a certain bureaucratic level of prefecture, and that little word turned out to be the key to the puzzle. Jianning Fu got its name in 1162, during the Southern Song dynasty. In 1278, the Yuan dynasty took over and renamed the prefecture Jianning Lu, indicating another bureaucratic level. The ceramic boxes therefore must have been manufactured between 1162 and 1278. They could only have been shipped when Jianning Fu had that precise government name.     And a re-do of earlier radiocarbon dating, with more samples, narrows the wreck down further to the late 1100s.

Where Does The World Admiral Come From?

"Admiral" comes from Arabic! It probably returned with crusaders to Europe. English gets admiral from the 12th-century French word, amirail, meaning "Saracen military commander."

The original Arabic word, amīr, means "ruler," and when it came to French, it somehow kept the Arabic suffix -al, meaning "of the." So in Arabic, amir-al is the cut-of-sounding "ruler of the."

  • <
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • >
  • Leave us a message

    HISTORICAL NON-FICTION

    By Lillian Audette

    This blog is a collection of the interesting, the weird, and sometimes the need-to-know about history, culled from around the internet. It has pictures, it has quotes, it occasionally has my own opinions on things. If you want to know more about anything posted, follow the link at the "source" on the bottom of each post. And if you really like my work, buy me a coffee or become a patron!

    Website design and coding by the Amalgama

    About us X