How Buddha's Aunt Convinced Him To Allow Women To Become Nuns -- With An Ancient Protest March
Buddha founded a monk's order in his lifetime. But he refused to start an order for women, even though his aunt Gotami -- who had nursed him and raised him as her own -- asked three times. So she decided to lead a walk of women who wanted to become nuns. Though in her seventies, Gotami and 500 supporters shaved their heads, donned a monk's yellow robes, and walked more than 100 miles to the Jetavana monastery where the Buddha taught.
When they arrived, covered in dust and with abused feet, Buddha again refused. No reason was given. The monk Ananda, one of the Buddha’s principal disciples and his cousin, offered to speak to the Buddha on the women's behalf. He is said to have asked the Buddha first directly to start a women's order. The Buddha said no. So Ananda asked whether women were unable to become enlightened? Could they attain the bliss of statehood? The Buddha replied that yes, a woman can become enlightened. So why can they not become nuns? With those words, Ananda changed the Buddha's mind, and the first order of Buddhist nuns was formed in the Buddha's lifetime.
So you don't give the Buddha too much credit, nuns were considered inferior to monks in several regards. There were eight conditions the new order of nuns had to follow: Nuns, no matter how senior, must defer to monks, even new ones. They could never chide or advise a monk, and yet had to seek the counsel of the male order and abide by the rules of both the male and female orders. Nuns also had to study two years before being ordained, compared to a year for monks, and had to live within six hours travel of a male order. The rules seem ridiculous and sexist, today. But Gotami had gotten what she wanted, through the power of peaceful protest.
Human's homo ancestors were likely much hairier than we are. Think chimpanzees and gorillas, not hairless cats. Why did humanity evolve to lose their body hair? There are many theories, including Darwin's that it was because our ancestors preferred less-hairy mates (in biological terms, sexual selection pressure), and that less hair meant less parasites and therefore a better chance of surviving.
The most popular theory today is that we evolved less hair to assist with regulating our body heat (in biological terms, thermoregulation). During some evolutionary phase after our ancestors became bipeds, they were regularly walking or running in open, drier habitats. Such activities in such an environment would make overheating a serious risk. Reducing body hair, to reduce heat trapping, and increasing sweat glands, for more effective evaporative cooling via perspiration, would therefore be evolutionarily favored.
This is the largest notched disk known to survive from ancient China. One face of the disk has inscribed, perpendicular lines. In his "Gu yu tukao," the Qing-dynasty scholar Wu Dacheng (1835–1902) hypothesized that the markings could be associated with an astronomical instrument called xuanji, described in early ritual texts as a kind of armillary sphere or model of heavenly bodies.
Notched disks like this one are rare, and only a few have come from known archaeological contexts. The documented burials span the late Neolithic through the Western Zhou period (circa 1050–771 BCE), suggesting that treasured examples may have been preserved for long periods of time prior to burial. Unfortunately, this particular disk comes without a known archaeological context. Based on a similar disk find, it is estimated to be from the Shang dynasty, sometime between 1600 and 1050 BCE.
Courtesy of the Freer Sackler Gallery's open content collection.
This is a restored Minoan fresco, from the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotini on the Greek island of Santorini. The settlement was destroyed in the Theran eruption sometime in the 1500s BCE and buried in volcanic ash, which preserved the remains of fine frescoes as well as many everyday objects.
It's true! The Mayans liked to get clean, by sweating. And archaeologists may have discovered a new, very old, steam bath. A team of researchers have uncovered a stone structure at Guatemala’s Maya site of Nakum that may have served as the foundation of a steam bath as early as 700 BCE. The excavators first discovered the entrance to a tunnel carved out of rock in an area of the site surrounded by temples, pyramids, and palaces. Like some modern-day Indiana Joneses, they followed the tunnel down a set of stairs, to a second tunnel, which ends in a rectangular room with rock-cut benches. An oval hearth in the wall opposite the entrance to the room is thought to have been used to heat large stones. Just pour on water - and voila! A steam bath! The structure was deliberately and completely sealed with mortar and rubble around 300 BCE. Maybe steam baths went out of fashion?
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By Lillian Audette
This blog is a collection of the interesting, the weird, and sometimes the need-to-know about history, culled from around the internet. It has pictures, it has quotes, it occasionally has my own opinions on things. If you want to know more about anything posted, follow the link at the "source" on the bottom of each post. And if you really like my work, buy me a coffee or become a patron!