Prehistoric women's arms 'stronger than those of today's elite rowers'
The study of ancient bones suggests that manual agricultural work had a profound effect on the bodies of women living in central Europe between about the early Neolithic and late Iron Age. The study examined the remains of 94 women spanning about 6,000 years, from the time of the early neolithic farmers (dating back to around 5,300 BC) through to the 800s CE, from countries including Germany, Austria, and northern Serbia. These ancient women had arm bones which were extremely strong -- about 30% stronger than non-athletic modern women. And stronger than modern rowers, soccer players, and runners. The study also reveals that the strength of women’s arm bones dropped over time. Probably because technology was developed to ease manual labor. By medieval times, the strength of women’s arm bones was on a par with that of the average woman today.
Perfectly Preserved Stone Age House Found In Norway
The discovery of a “sealed” Stone Age house site from 3500 BCE in Norway is the finest preserved house from the funnel beaker culture which lived in the area at the time. The dwelling site lies 11 meters (36 feet) over sea level today, but was at the water’s edge 5,500 years ago. The site looks like it was covered by a sandstorm, possibly in the course of a few hours. At the time, Norway was much drier, and sandstorms were not unusual according to the earth's strata from the time. Which is lucky for today's archaeologists! The site is so well-preserved that it has been described as a "mini-Pompeii."
Stone Age tools found in Namibia dating back to 200,000 years ago are the earliest remains of humans yet identified in Africa. The tools are believed to have belonged to a Homo sapiens predecessor, Homo erectus.
Greek philosopher-historian Xenophon records that Larissa, a town on the banks of the river Tigris, somewhere in modern Iraq, had once been a well-fortified stronghold. Although it had become a deserted city by the time Xenophon saw it in 401 BCE. At its height, Larissa had 100 foot high clay brick walls, sitting on a 20 foot stone base, which encircled the entire city. Those are very tall, especially for the 600s BCE. It had proven too high for the Persian army. They had repeatedly tried, and failed, to take Larissa about 200 years before, according to Xenophon.
But then the heavens intervened. "A cloud covered up the sun and hid it from sight" Xenophon wrote. The Larissans, terrified, abandoned their city. Some hid on a pyramid nearby. Others simply fled. Larissa was left without defenders, and the Persians easily captured the city, although it probably wasn’t worth much without any inhabitants.
The track of the total eclipse which happened on May 19, 557 BCE, passed through southern Syria and Iraq. This may have been the astronomical event that Xenophon wrote about, 150 years later.
6,000-year-old Decorative Wood Carving Found on Welsh Mountainside
An intricate pattern covers one side, an oval motif covers the other. At about 1.7 m long, or 5.5 feet, it's a big piece of wood. And if the dating holds up, it is the oldest decorative wood carving in Europe. Analyses currently place it at 6,270 years old, to the Late Mesolithic/Early Neolithic period.
The wood carving is one of twelve lengths of timber that were uncovered on this particular Welsh mountainside; once the carving was found, further excavations were done on the hillside, but nothing besides the timber was found. That suggests the 12 lengths of timber were placed on this specific hill for a specific purpose. Archaeologists have theorized a number of possible purposes, including a tribal boundary, a hunting ground, and a sacred spot.
Humans Have Been Arguing About What Color to Paint the Walls Since 3,000 BCE
Humanity's ancestors 5,000 years ago brightened up their Stone Age homes by painting the insides, according to new archaeological evidence from the Orkney Islands in Britain. They used red, yellow and orange pigments from ground-up minerals and bound it with animal fat and eggs to make their paint. Because who wants to live in a plain stone hut, even in 3,000 BCE? The new Orkney finds are the earliest ever example of man using paint to decorate their properties in Britain, if not in Europe.
This is what bananas used to look like! When it was first domesticated, between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, Papua New Guineas were eating a very different thing than we eat today. Today’s sweet, seedless bananas are the result of thousands of years of cross-pollinating and selective breeding.
A magnificent tomb has been found at Hala Sultan Tekke/Dromolaxia Vizatzia, on Cyprus. It was just outside a newly discovered city quarter, dating to around 1,250 BCE, during the late Bronze Age. Inside were buried eight children ages 5 to 10 years old, and nine adults, the oldest adult being about 40 years old. Which tells you what life expectancy was like on Cyprus at the time.
The tomb is unusual for being outside the city, when most burials were in the city itself, and for the richness of its contents. The family was buried in style. They were laid to rest with over 100 ceramic vessels, several gold objects, and a number of imported goods including scarabs from Egypt, pottery from Turkey and Greece and Crete, and gemstones and cylinder seals from Syria and Mesopotamia. Of particular interest are the intact ceramics. They hold a lot of archaeological information, from what high-class pottery looked like in Mycenae at this time, to what wealthy women were wearing. Click through the image gallery to see some of the finds!
Ever wondered what Uppsala looked like back in the Iron Age? Now you can see for yourself -- a game designer and artist has re-created what the hillfort looked like, based on current archaeological research. Even the plants are based on species native to the area!
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By Lillian Audette
This blog is a collection of the interesting, the weird, and sometimes the need-to-know about history, culled from around the internet. It has pictures, it has quotes, it occasionally has my own opinions on things. If you want to know more about anything posted, follow the link at the "source" on the bottom of each post. And if you really like my work, buy me a coffee or become a patron!