The Qur'an consists of 114 chapters called surahs. The chapters are not arranged in the order in which they were first recited by Muhammad, over a period of 23 years. Instead, the Qur'an's surahs are in the re-arranged order that Muhammad placed them in after they were all revealed to Muhammad.
When you read that, an image probably came to mind: giant glaciers, people huddling for warmth, maybe a giant woolly mammoth or two. The problem with that definition of "Ice Age" is it defines what life is like now on Earth as "normal" and giant glaciers over the north and south pole as "abnormal." But is that true? Are we, in fact, living in a period of relative coolness? Is right now an "abnormal" Earth?
A better description of an ice age would be that it’s a long stretch of time in which both the atmosphere and the planet’s surface have a low temperature, resulting in the presence of polar ice sheets and mountainous glaciers. An Ice Age can last for several million years. Within the Ice Age period, the Earth isn't uniformly covered in snow. There are periods of glaciation, characterized by ice sheet and glacier expansion over the face of the planet, and interglacial periods, where we would have an interval of several thousand years of warmer temperatures and receding ice. Turns out just the presence of ice caps on the north and south pole is abnormal! What we currently live in is an "interglacial period" in the middle of an Ice Age!
Can you believe those are animals? The tunic is covered in geometric animals! From the Moche or Wari culture, 600s to 800s CE, Peru.
A survey of cube-shaped dice dating back to the Roman era finds that they were not designed to have an equal chance of landing on different numbers until the Renaissance, according to researchers from UC Davis and the American Museum of Natural History. Roman-era dice, the researchers found, were a mess when it came to shape. They were made from a variety of materials, such as metal, bone and clay, and no two were shaped entirely alike. Many were visibly lumpy and lopsided, with the 1 and 6 on opposite sides that were more likely to roll up. In the Dark Ages after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, between 400 CE and 1100 CE, dice seem to have grown rare. Relatively few have been found from this period. Dice reemerged in the Middle Ages, and at that point were a little more regular in shape. But they still weren't fair -- anyone playing dice would have had slightly higher chances of getting certain numbers, depending on how uneven the dice were made.
The researchers suggest that the popularization of "scientific" thinking may have helped dice rolls become near-chance during the Renaissance. "People like Galileo and Blaise Pascal were developing ideas about chance and probability, and we know from written records in some cases they were actually consulting with gamblers," Jelmer Eerkens of UC Davis said. "We think users of dice also adopted new ideas about fairness, and chance or probability in games."
Researchers from Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History have discovered a route through underwater limestone caves connecting the Sac Actun cenote and the Dos Ojos cenote. Maya pottery, human bones, and the bones of elephant-like creatures, giant sloths, bears, tigers, and extinct species of horses, all likely from around the end of the last Ice Age, have been found in the tunnel-like caves. Exploring them and finding artifacts can be difficult, though: the underwater caves range in width from 400 feet to just three feet.
When the Silk Road was in its heyday, it is generally known that silk and porcelain from China was being traded for gold and amber from Europe and spices from India. But did you know that the steppes of Eurasia were a large part of the Silk Road too? They traded horses, which were eventually commercially raised in stud farms, falcons for hunting, swords for fighting, and wax and honey which were popularly believed to provide resistance to the cold. But above all, the steppes traded animal pelts. Furs were highly prized, both for their practical warmth and their social prestige.
Muslim merchants learned to distinguish between different animal pelts, and set their prices accordingly. They were valued depending on their scarcity — less common furs meant higher social cachet — and their warmth. One caliph in the 700s CE went so far as to conduct a series of experiments to test which furs were the warmest. He placed each fur in a separate container, then filled each container with water, and left them all outside overnight in ice-cold weather. In the morning, he checked the containers. All had frozen except for the one with black fox fur. The caliph declared the experiment a success, and black fox fur the warmest and the driest of the furs.
In eastern Mongolia, archaeologists have uncovered a tomb dating to the mid-700s CE, surrounded by 14 stone pillars. Turkic runes inscribed on the pillars indicate the deceased was a viceroy and high-ranking administrative officer during the Second Turkic Qaghanate. This state, which controlled much of the steppes above the Great Wall of China, had emerged in 682 CE and lasted until 744 CE, under the leadership of the Götürk's Ashina clan. Think the Mongol Empire, but earlier and confined to the steppes, and led by Turkic clans. Prior to the discovery of the tomb, it had been thought that Turkic elites were only buried in particular parts of Ulaanbaatar, the capital of the ancient empire.
Tsuzuraozaki Kotei Iseki is an interesting archaeological site in Japan: it is entirely underwater! The site, in Lake Biwako under about 200 feet (61 meters) of water, is known to be home to a wide variety of pottery dating from as early as 8000 BCE through the 1100s CE. Japanese archaeologists recently used a robot (surprise, surprise) to explore Tsuzuraozaki Kotei Iseki. It spotted a Haji pottery urn, measuring about a foot long and dating to the 500s to 700s CE, and shallow, grayish-black bowls thought to be Sue pottery, made in Japan and southern Korea for funeral and ritual use beginning in the 400s CE.
A map of where, in the world, popes have been born. Note that they placed each pope in the country he would be born in, if he was born today. Three popes were born in modern-day Tunisia, sure, but that was back in the Roman Empire. Those ancient "Tunisian" popes would have called it the province of "Africa" and it included eastern Algeria and northern Libya, as well as Tunisia.