The Peloponnesian War ended in 1996. The bloody conflict between Athens and Sparta had stopped in 404 B.C. without an official peace pact, so after 2,500 years the cities decided to sign a symbolic agreement. It read, “Today we express our grief for the devastating war between the two key cities of ancient Greece and declare its end.”
Cato the Elder Had an Interesting View of Families
A man who beat his wife or child laid violent hands, Cato the Elder said, on what was most sacred. A good husband he believed to be more worthy of more praise than a great senator. He admired the ancient Socrates "for nothing so much as for having lived a temperate and contented life with a wife who was a scold, and children who were half-witted."
Phalanxes Had Problem: Everyone Wanted To Be Right
Ancient Greek soldiers would hold shields with their left arm, and swords with their right. This created an interesting dilemma. Thucydides, an Athenian general and historian, wrote that "fear makes every man want to do his best to find protection for his unarmed side in the shield of the man next to him on the right." The soldier who is farthest right must try to "keep his own unarmed side away from the enemy, and his fear spreads to the others who follow his example." In other words, the man farthest to the right would always try to go to the right of the enemy, so his unprotected right side would be safe. He would keep going to the right, and each man would follow, trying to protect their own unprotected right side. The result, Thucydides wrote: "the right wing tends to get unduly extended."
"Heaven won’t fail the dedicated heart. Sleeping on brushwood and tasting gall, 3,000 Yue soldiers at long last can defeat the Wu."
Every Chinese schoolchild knows the idiom "sleeping on brushwood, tasting gall." It means — roughly — that grueling hard work will always pay off in the long run.
The quote is a couplet by writer Pu Songling in the 1600s, who wrote it after repeatedly failing the notoriously difficult Qing Dynasty-era civil service exam. But the idiom predates Pu.
You have to back pretty far in Chinese history to find the source of the saying, to the war-filled Spring and Autumn period. In the early 400s BCE, King Goujian of the Yue state was defeated by the Wu state ruler and forced to be his servant for a time, before being allowed to return home. Goujian kept his resolve strong with hard living, eating peasant food and literally tasting bile to remind him of the bitterness of servitude. He eventually triumphs over his nemesis — who leads a more luxurious, lazy life — and annexes his rival’s kingdom.
Today, people are urged to become a “21st-century Goujian” through hard work. But they might want to consider Pu Songling’s case, too. Sometimes hard work takes too long to pay off. Pu, a schoolteacher, lived and died in relative obscurity, despite having written numerous short stories about the supernatural. It was not until some 50 years after his death that he gained a following as a writer. Too late for Pu to enjoy it.
King Djoser (c 2667 - 2648 BCE) built what is perhaps the first true pyramid in ancient Egypt, the step pyramid. The architect of Djoser's pyramid was Imhotep, the king's vizier. He slowly grew in fame, slowly getting credited with medical powers, until he was worshiped as a god in the Ptolemaic Period (332 - 30 BCE) and equated with Thoth, the Egyptian god of wisdom, and Asklepios, the Greek god of healing.
Today, his name is perhaps better known for being the mummy that was brought back to life in the movie, The Mummy.
Ancient Circular Burial Raises More Questions Than It Answers
A rare circular burial found at the Tlalpan site, in southern Mexico City, has 10 males and females, ranging in age from a one-month-old infant to an older, or even elderly, adult. The burial is approximately 2,400 years old. By that time, state-level societies were emerging in the Valley of Mexico. Perhaps these ten belonged to one such state?
Some of the remains show evidence of intentional skull deformation and tooth filing. Both became common in later Mesoamerican civilizations. Perhaps the Valley of Mexico was a trend setter?
Weirdly (to modern viewers) the skeletons have been carefully arranged. They face different directions, and are deliberately intertwined: one head is on another's chest, one pair of hands lays on another's back. Why this particular arrangement? We are still trying to figure that out. So far, it is still unknown how they all died, or whether they even died at the same time.
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By Lillian Audette
This blog is a collection of the interesting, the weird, and sometimes the need-to-know about history, culled from around the internet. It has pictures, it has quotes, it occasionally has my own opinions on things. If you want to know more about anything posted, follow the link at the "source" on the bottom of each post. And if you really like my work, buy me a coffee or become a patron!