Beer was a staple in ancient Egypt. Called hqt (heqet), it was drunk by all ages, and all classes. It was so important that wages were sometimes paid in beer. Workmen at the pyramids of the Giza Plateau were given beer, three times daily - five kinds of beer and four kinds of wine have been found by archaeologists at the site.
The beer drunk by these ancient people was probably very similar to the way beer is still produced in Sudan today. The beer seems to have been not very intoxicating. It was nutritious, and rather sweet, without bubbles, and thick -- so thick that the beer had to be strained by drinking it with wooden straws.
That's not to say ancient Egyptian beer was non-alcoholic. There are plenty of records of ancient Egyptians drinking beer at festivals, getting drunk, and having what sounds like great parties.
Why did the medieval Europeans switch from tunics, which were favored by the earlier civilizations like Greeks and the Romans, to pants? The answer is simple: horses win wars. All around the world, societies which had mastered the art of horseback combat wiped out those that had not. The theory goes that men in battle need protect their most sensitive organ. So pants it was.
A huge cache of stone inscriptions from one of Africa's oldest written languages have been unearthed in a vast "city of the dead" in Sudan. The inscriptions are written in the obscure 'Meroitic' language, the oldest known written language south of the Sahara, which remains only partially deciphered. The city of the dead is Sedeinga, located on the western shore of the Nile River in Sudan, about 60 miles (100 kilometers) north of the river's third cataract. It was once part of Nubia, a gold-rich region south of Egypt, which was home to multiple great ancient kingdoms. Sedeinga itself holds the vestiges of at least 80 brick pyramids and more than 100 tombs from the kingdoms of Napata and Meroe, which lasted from the 600s BCE to the 300s CE. They were cosmopolitan kingdoms, mixing Egyptian culture and sub-Saharan culture. One of the finds in Sedeinga, for instance, is a temple to the Egyptian goddess Ma'at, but depicted with Sub-Saharan African features for the first known time.
About 18,000 Dogū figurines have been discovered in Japan. They are a variety of sizes, and range in age between 13,000 and 2,300 years. Dogū figurines are generally stylized human shapes. Their heads are oversized, with expressive features. Their bodies are undersized, with small limbs.
Archaeologists studying the period think the figurines may have been used for medicine and healing. Many figurines were found broken or with some parts cut away. It seems that there was a belief that a disease could be transferred to a Dogū figurine, which was then broken, to destroy the disease and heal the patient. Some figurines represent pregnant women, which may have also been used for medicine, but as talismans for safe childbirth.
The exact date of the founding of Persepolis is not known. It is assumed that Darius I began work on the platform and its structures between 518 and 516 BCE. He wanted his new city of Persepolis to be an international showpiece, and the seat of his vast Achaemenian Empire.
We know this because Darius I boasted about building Persepolis - at Persepolis. There is an excavated foundation inscription that reads, “And Ahuramazda was of such a mind, together with all the other gods, that this fortress (should) be built. And (so) I built it. And I built it secure and beautiful and adequate, just as I was intending to.” He was boasting a little -- Persepolis was not actually completed for a hundred years.
But the security and splendor of Persepolis lasted only two centuries. One of which, remember, was when it was being built. So the security and splendor of Persepolis really only lasted about one century. Its majestic audience halls and residential palaces perished in flames when Alexander the Great conquered and looted Persepolis in 330 B.C. and, according to Plutarch, carried away its treasures on 20,000 mules and 5,000 camels.
Researchers recently claimed that ancient Egypt's highly advanced civilization may have been brought down by unrest, primarily caused by climate change and volcanoes. The study used modern climate science and Ptolemy-Dynasty texts to explore the impact of volcanic eruptions on the flow of the Nile River.
It found that riots were caused by famines, which happened due to natural events that reduced the summer flooding of the Nile River. Without a proper flood season, crop yield was low or the entire harvest was lost. And hungry citizens are not good citizens.
Immigrants have been 'moving and mixing' across Europe since ancient times, DNA research reveals
Groundbreaking research into the DNA of early Europeans has allowed unprecedented insight into the movement of people and cultures across the ancient world. Carried out by a large team of scientists from several international institutions, the ambitious genetic analysis of hundreds of human specimens from the Neolithic period, Copper Age and Bronze Age represents a fundamental challenge to traditional views about migration throughout history.
No European is “from” anywhere, is the conclusion of the study.The assumption that present-day people are directly descended from the people who always lived in that same area – is wrong almost everywhere.
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By Lillian Audette
This blog is a collection of the interesting, the weird, and sometimes the need-to-know about history, culled from around the internet. It has pictures, it has quotes, it occasionally has my own opinions on things. If you want to know more about anything posted, follow the link at the "source" on the bottom of each post. And if you really like my work, buy me a coffee or become a patron!