You may have previously heard of the Children's Crusade, which happened in 1212. And was a total failure. When the Vatican sought recruits to fight Muslim Spain and the Cathars in spring 1212, an unexpected group of volunteers came forward, who were neither mercenaries nor local warriors. The chroniclers at the time called them “pueri.”
In 1977, the Dutch historian Peter Raedts argued that the Latin word "pueri" did not specifically mean children, but anyone who was socially "small." So "pueri" could be peasants who belonged to the lowest tiers of society. Several sources specifically mention that adult men and women, as well as elderly people, were active in the events of 1212.
Another potential re-definition of the term "pueri" was that it may have generally referred to male adolescents under 15 years old, which at the time was the earliest legal age they could marry. If this was the definition, teenagers were therefore counted as part of the children's crusade. But the word "infantes" -- which specifically means children -- also appeared in the sources describing the actual participants of the Children's Crusade. Which suggests the more limited pueri definition is right.
Harvard invented the college interview and evaluation of extracurricular activities in 1926. They were intended to be measurements of future students' "character." This was because when only academics were considered in their college admissions, Harvard thought it was accepting too many Jewish students.
The Kayi Tribe is considered to be one of the twenty-four Oghuz Turkic Tribes that descend from the legendary and almost mythical figure Oghuz Khan/Oghuz Khagan. It was a leader of this tribe, Osman, who founded the Ottoman Empire. The Seljuk Turks were also an Oghuz Turks, for those who are curious, though not counted as one of the twenty-four main tribes.
Looking For Extinct Hominins' DNA In Modern Icelanders
A team of scientists from Aarhus University, deCODE Genetics, and the Max Planck Society looked for fragments of Neanderthal DNA in the genomes of more than 27,000 Icelanders. When they combined all the fragments they reconstructed at least 38 percent of a Neanderthal genome!
They then compared this new Icelandic Neanderthal DNA with other Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes, and found that the Neanderthal DNA in modern Icelanders is more similar to Neanderthal DNA found in Croatians than to Neanderthal DNA found in Russians. Icelanders were also found to carry traces of Denisovan DNA. Thismay have been transferred to modern humans via Neanderthals, whose ancestors mixed with Denisovans, then homo sapiens.
Examining the mutations in the Neanderthal DNA specifically, the researchers concluded that in general, Neanderthal children had older mothers and younger fathers than the modern humans. The researchers found that overall, Neanderthal DNA contributes to a slightly reduced risk of prostate cancer, slightly shorter height, and slightly faster blood clotting time for today's Icelanders.
Arab inventor al-Jazari (1136–1206) invented an automaton named the "elephant clock." Water propelled the clock, which caused a humanoid automaton to strike his cymbal and a mechanical bird to chirp, every half an hour. His instructions for the elephant clock are precise enough that multiple reproductions have been made!
One of the horse statues has been dated to at least 2,800 years ago, the time of the Israelite Kingdom, and the other to the Hellenistic period at least 2,200 years ago. Horses had become deeply established in the region by that time, albeit for mobility and for prestige. Horses were not for pulling plows, but to get about, and visit or conquer the neighbors. These are not the first horse statuary found in the region which were relatively popular by about 3,000 years ago. But they are the best preserved.
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By Lillian Audette
This blog is a collection of the interesting, the weird, and sometimes the need-to-know about history, culled from around the internet. It has pictures, it has quotes, it occasionally has my own opinions on things. If you want to know more about anything posted, follow the link at the "source" on the bottom of each post. And if you really like my work, buy me a coffee or become a patron!