In 1954, the first successful kidney transplant was performed between identical twins. In 1959, the first successful kidney transplant was performed between fraternal twins. And in 1960, doctors performed first successful kidney transplant between siblings who were not twins.
In 1971, the first women’s world cup was held in Mexico. Although unsanctioned by FIFA, it featured blanket press coverage, packed stadiums, and huge sponsorship deals. Denmark beat Mexico in the finals, 3-0, but the real winners were women’s soccer everywhere.
First, and perhaps most crucially, bans on women playing the beautiful game were lifted. Yes, women had been banned from forming teams or using men’s soccer fields in many countries! As a result, national teams sprang up throughout the 1970s in Europe and North America. The first (official) international women's tournaments were held in Asia in 1975, and Europe in 1984, eventually leading to the first FIFA women’s world cup in 1991.
Carthage was initially founded by Phoenicians from the city-state of Tyre in the 800s BCE. They named it Qart-hadasht, which simply means “new town.” Situated in today's Tunisia, the settlement was one of many Tyrian colonies dotted around the Mediterranean basin, which brought new materials and goods back to Phoenicia and strengthened and expanded Phoenicia's trading network. Eventually the new town gained its independence around 650 BCE, and became a prosperous trade-based city-state with colonies of its own.
Prehistoric Neanderthals had high rates of surfer’s ear, or aural exostoses -- a condition caused by repeated exposure to cold water. It is theorized that they may have gathered resources from the sea, such as fishing, or gathering molluscs. Another possibility, of course, is that Neanderthals had a genetic predisposition to bone growths in their ears.
Located on Peru’s northwest coast, Pañamarca was one of many ceremonial centers sacred to the Moche people. It is home to some of the best-preserved murals from the Moche, dating to the 500s to 900s CE. After early archaeological work in the 1950s, which documented some impressive murals, the site was quietly forgotten until an archaeologist and art historian decided to examine it again in 2010, and see what art might still remain. They didn't expect much. But not only were a number of the previously-documented murals still in good condition, many more had been missed by the earlier archaeologists, left in situ and intact. “We were soon looking at things that no one had seen since A.D. 780, when parts of the site were deliberately buried,” said lead researcher Dr. lisa Trever.
This particular mural was one of their new discoveries. Based on evidence from Moche ceramics, it is believed to depict the mythical hero Ai-Apaec fighting a Strombus monster whose shell is adorned with a two-headed serpent.
Here's a Chinese map of the world with a very unusual perspective. It's the first time I've seen such a map! If anyone knows more about why a map might be oriented this way, please get in touch!
There are three types of mountains: mountains of accumulation, formed by volcanic eruptions; folded mountains, formed by the clashing of the earth’s tectonic plates; and mountains of erosion, formed by extreme weather.
On May 21st, 1991, the former Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by a Tamil Tiger suicide bomber. Fourteen others were also killed in the attack. Rajiv Gandhi had taken office in 1984 after the his mother, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was assassinated by one of her bodyguards.
The title comes from a quote that may or may not have been by Mark Twain.